• Why is the seasons changing?

    How boring it would be to live if a young and tender spring would not replace the frosty winter, summer would not replace it with holidays and fresh fruits and vegetables, and velvet autumn is generally loved by many people for its calm and beauty. We accept all the seasons, rejoice in them, and rarely think about why the seasons change. It turns out to be a complex natural phenomenon based on the location of the planets - the Sun and the Earth.

    Earth's annual circle

    If we talk about the change of day and night, then it is much easier to understand. The Earth turned to the Sun by your city, you have the day, turned away, you look into the dark space - you have the night. The Earth is drawn around its axis in 24 hours. The reason for the change of seasons is that, besides this rotation, the Earth makes a circular path around the Sun. It passes this circle in 365 days and 6 hours, this time period is called the year. For 4 years, it accumulates 4 times for 6 hours, and a leap year appears in the calendar, in which there are 366 days.

    How is the change of seasons

    The thing is that the Earth is in an orbit of the Sun not directly, but under an inclination, the axis of the Earth and the orbit of the Sun form an angle of 23 degrees 27 minutes. And it turns out that one hemisphere is always closer to the Sun, and the second farther. Therefore, one summer, and the second winter. It should be noted that in order for summer to come, it is necessary that the rays of the Sun fall on the Earth at a right angle. When the Earth turns to the Sun at an inclination on a tangent, it turns out that the distance to the southern and northern hemispheres is the same, then spring and autumn come. There are two days in a year when the day is equal to nights, and in the northern and southern hemisphere these parts of the day are compared. This happens around September 23 and March 21. It is always summer at the equator, because the distance to the sun does not change here, the rays are always straight, and they provide heat. There are places where it is always winter for the same reason. The sun's rays very rarely fall on the poles of the Earth at a right angle, only tangentially. And, as we know, the sliding rays of the ice can not melt, they only illuminate the Earth. Only one thing remains stable - the slope of the Earth’s axis, it is always directed towards the Polar Star, which always points to the north.

    Model of the Earth and the Sun

    To better understand how the seasons change, you can independently make a model of the Earth and the Sun. Take the desk lamp and place it in the center of the table. Now take the old ball, pierce it with an ordinary knitting needle strictly in the center. So we clearly identified the axis of the Earth. Tilt the axle by about 23-25 ​​degrees, do not pull the hand and do not change the direction of the axis. More lit half the ball on top? So it's summer there. Now rotate the ball, move it 90 degrees. Half, previously bright, became illuminated on a par with the second half. Consequently, autumn has come here. Now move another 90 degrees, our half of the ball has become darkened. Here it is now winter, the rays of the lamp fall on her only in passing. After the next 90 degrees our half will be lit a little brighter, and, returning to the previous position, it will again become the lightest. It has been a whole year!

    The root cause of all

    That's the way the world around us, the change of seasons - is a brilliant notion of nature, the universe. It is this group that provides balance in space, makes not only the seasons change, but also circulate water on the planet, erupt volcanoes, move currents in the ocean.Everything on Earth takes place precisely because of this, namely, the forces that ensure the interaction between the planets, and in our case between the Earth and the Sun.


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