What is water?
Water is an inorganic compound consisting of oxygen and hydrogen. Under normal conditions, it is a colorless, clear liquid that is odorless and tasteless. In solid form, water is called snow, ice or hoarfrost, in a gaseous form, steam. Approximately 71% of the entire surface of the planet is covered with water. Approximately 96% of water reserves fall on the oceans, lakes, glaciers, swamps and groundwater fall on the remaining 4%. By its nature, water is an excellent solvent and always contains solutes or gases, with the exception of distilled water. Water is the most important source of life on the planet. Therefore, in our article we will try to tell you all about this amazing substance, and most importantly, what kind of substance is water in nature and what are its chemical and physical properties.
Physical properties of water
- Under normal atmospheric conditions, water retains a liquid state, while at the same time, other hydrogen compounds of a similar nature are gases. This phenomenon is explained by the special properties of the addition of molecules and atoms of water, and the bonds between them.Oxygen atoms are attached to hydrogen atoms, forming an angle of almost 105 degrees, and this configuration is always maintained. Through the great difference in the electronegativity of oxygen and hydrogen atoms, electron clouds are strongly shifted towards oxygen. In connection with this reason, the water molecule is considered an active dipole, in which the hydrogen side has a positive charge and the oxygen side is negative. As a result, the water molecule forms bonds, which are quite difficult to break off and this will require a large expenditure of energy.
- Water is practically not amenable to compression. Thus, with an increase in the atmospheric pressure of one bar, water is compressed only 0.00005 of its original volume.
- The structure of ice and water is very similar. Both in ice and in water, the molecules try to settle down in a certain order - they want to form a structure, but thermal movement prevents this. When water passes into the solid state, the thermal rotation of the molecules no longer prevents the structural formation, after which the molecules are ordered, and the voids between them increase, from which, therefore, the density decreases.This explains the fact that water is a very anomalous substance. The solid state of aggregation of water is ice; it can calmly float on the surface of the liquid state of aggregation of water. When evaporation occurs, on the contrary, all connections are immediately broken. A rather large amount of energy is required to break these bonds, which explains the greatest heat capacity of water among all substances. To warm a liter of water by 1 degree, you need to spend about 4 kJ of energy. Due to this property, water is often used as a coolant.
- Water has a high surface tension, yielding only mercury in this indicator. The high viscosity of water is due to its hydrogen bonds, which prevent molecules from making movements at different speeds.
- Water is a good solvent. Solute molecules are immediately surrounded by water molecules. Positive particles of a solute are attracted by oxygen atoms, and negative ones by hydrogen atoms. Since the sizes of water molecules are rather small, a large number of water molecules can surround each molecule of the solute at once.
- Water is a substance that has a negative surface electrical potential.
- In its pure form, water is a good insulator, but since certain substances, salts or acids, are often dissolved in it, there are always negative and positive ions in the water. Due to these properties, water can conduct electricity.
- The refractive index of water is n = 1.33. But water perfectly absorbs infrared radiation, and in connection with this property water, or rather water vapor is a greenhouse gas. Also, water is able to absorb microwave radiation, on which the effect of microwave ovens is based.
Those who think that water is organic matter are mistaken. Water is formed by two elements - oxygen and hydrogen. Next, we consider the basic chemical properties of water.
You can get water using the following reactions:
Also during the neutralization reaction:
Using the reduction of copper oxide with hydrogen:
At room temperature, water reacts:
With active metals:
With fluorine and halide compounds:
With salts formed by a weak base and a weak acid, moreover causing their hydrolysis:
- With anhydrides and anhydrides of inorganic and carboxylic acids.
- With organometallic compounds (Grignard reagents, diethyl zinc, methyl sodium).
- With nitrides, carbides, phosphides, hydrides, alkali metal silicides.
- With most salts, moreover, forming hydrates.
- With silanes and boranes.
- With carbon dioxide and ketene.
- With fluoride noble gases.
When heated reacts with magnesium, iron:
With methane and coal:
In the presence of catalysts, it reacts:
- With esters and amides.
- With alkynes.
- With nitriles.
- With alkenes.
I hope that our article has helped you understand what kind of substance is water, and now you will know much more about it.
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