What is epic?
The epos is a concept that defines both a literary genre (the synonym is “epics”), and one of three literary genera (epic, lyrics and drama). The difference between the kinds of literature and genres is that the genders combine different genres, the concept of "gender" is much broader than the concept of "genre". Therefore, there are two answers to the question of what is epic.
Epos as a kind of literature includes genres:
- large (epic, novel, epic novel, epic poem),
- medium (story)
- small (story, essay, short story).
The epos is very informative, he tells about the features of society (traditions, customs, attitudes, ways of life, values, feelings) of this or that era.
And unlike the lyrics and drama, the epic presents us with realistic pictures that are written "voice by stage", that is, the author himself does not participate in what is happening, he just tells. But, remaining "behind the scenes", he forms an attitude towards the narrator, and we look at what is happening through his eyes.
The epos as a genre originated in the distant past and in different nations to glorify the courage of the heroes, their achievements and conquests.
In Russia, the epic songs were called "antiquities"; in the modern Russian, folklorist I. Sakharov began to call them bylinas. He took this title from the epic "The Word of Igor's Regiment". This speaks of another feature of the epic (epic) as a genre - credibility. Of course, it is impossible to speak about the complete authenticity of what was stated in the bylins, but for those in whose times these epics were born, they were true. They glorified the heroism and strength of their heroes, their valor and conquest. That's what a heroic epic is.
One of the most famous epics in Russia is the aforementioned "Lay". This work tells us not only about the life of the peoples of Russia and the relations between tribes, cities, princes, but also presents us with important historical facts that have actually occurred. It testifies to the religious state of Russia in the 12th century, shows a crucial period in all its colors.
There are many more epics known: "The Tale of Sukhan", "The History of the Kiev Bogatyr Mikhail Danilovich Twelve Years", "The Tale of Prince Stavre Godinovich", "The Tale of Ilya of Murom, the Nightingale the Robber and the Idol," "The Tale of Prince Vladimir of Kiev, about the heroes of Kiev,and about Mikhail Potok Ivanovich, and about Tsar Treheny by Zalata Arda ”and others, which we are now seeing in the form of cartoons about the heroes (about Alesh Popovich and Tugarin).
Difference from other heat
As mentioned above, the main difference is relative reliability. The second difference is the structure (they consist of stanzas in 8 lines, and formulas are used in them). Epic formulas are those phrases or whole stanzas that are the "platform" for building the storyline of the work. Formula examples:
- "Good fellow";
- "Mother-cheese ground";
- "Glorious Kiev-grad";
- "The lord of husbands Agamemnon";
- "Zeus is a mocker."
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