What is classicism?
The concept of "classicism" applies to almost all types of art. It is found in architecture, in music, in literature, in painting. Therefore, to the question of what classicism is, we will answer depending on what kind of art is meant. If we talk in general, what is classicism - the definition in this case will be the following: is it an artistic style or a system that dominated Europe for two centuries - from the XVII to XIX century. In essence, this is a whole epoch. And now let's talk about classicism through the prism of certain types of art.
What is classicism in literature
Literary classicism originates from the ideas of the Enlightenment, which prevailed in Europe in the XVI-XVII centuries. In works written in the spirit of classicism, the reader will find praise for freedom, calls for liberation from religious tyranny and oppression of absolute monarchy. Writers of the era of classicism in their writings expressed hope for the formation of a new society that will live according to different laws - the laws of equality and justice, and the members of this society will be kinder and more lenient in relation to each other.As for the structure of a classical work, then, first of all, the so-called principle of three unities should be respected in it: unity of action, unity of place and unity of time. This means that there must be one storyline in action, one must occur in a certain place, and the work must necessarily unfold in time strictly sequentially. As for the specific time frame, ideally, the action of a play or novel written in the spirit of classicism should unfold in one day. From Western authors whose works are attributed to this style, we single out Corneille, Racine, La Fontaine, Moliere, Boileau, Voltaire, Samuel Johnson, Boswell, and Gibbon. In Russia, the most prominent representatives of classicism were such eminent writers as A.P. Sumarokov, D.I. Fonvizin, M.V. Lomonosov, G. R. Derzhavin and A. D. Kantemir.
What is classicism in music
First of all, let's distinguish between such concepts as "classical music" and "music of classicism." By classical music, art historians and all educated people understand such musical works that have passed the test of time.In this sense, quite a large number of composers can be counted among the classics — from the Middle Ages to the 20th century (in Russia, for example, D.Shostakovich, S.S. Prokofyev, S.V. Rakhmaninov, abroad — Sh. M.Vidor, M.Dyupre, J.Gershwin, D.Ellington). As for the music of classicism, then it can be attributed to the music of European composers of the middle of the XVIII - the middle of the XIX centuries. - these terms, of course, are very conditional. But more than real people, who worked in the spirit of musical classicism. First of all, they are such outstanding composers as Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven, who are often called “Viennese classics” in music circles. They determined the further development of music for many years to come. It was their ideas that many famous composers later used to write music in a more modern romantic style.
Classicism in architecture
Monumentality, severity, simplicity, a logically structured structure and harmony - with the help of these very words one can characterize architectural structures bearing the imprint of classicism. This style has its history from ancient times,or rather, since antiquity. At that time it was built that way. Architectural classicism came to Europe to replace the pretentious Baroque style. In Russia, classicism fully flourished in the middle of the XVIII - XIX centuries. The brightest European monuments of the era of classicism are, in fact, entire cities - St. Petersburg, Helsinki and Warsaw.
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