Sulfuric acid properties
Every person in the chemistry class studied acids. It is called sulfuric acid and is designated HSO.4. About what are the properties of sulfuric acid, tell our article.
Physical properties of sulfuric acid
Pure sulfuric acid or monohydrate is a colorless oily liquid, which solidifies into a crystalline mass at a temperature of + 10 � C. Sulfuric acid for reaction contains 95% H2SO4and has a density of 1.84g / cm3. 1 liter of such acid weighs 2 kg. Acid hardens at -20 � C. The heat of fusion is 10.5 kJ / mol at a temperature of 10.37 � C.
The properties of concentrated sulfuric acid are varied. For example, when this acid is dissolved in water, a large amount of heat will be released (19 kcal / mol) due to the formation of hydrates. These hydrates can be isolated from solution at low temperatures in a solid form.
Sulfuric acid is one of the most basic products in the chemical industry. It is intended for the production of mineral fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, superphosphate), a variety of salts and acids, detergents and drugs, artificial fibers, dyes, explosives.Sulfuric acid is also used in metallurgy (for example, decomposition of uranium ores), for refining petroleum products, for drying gases, and so on.
Chemical properties of sulfuric acid
The chemical properties of sulfuric acid are as follows:
- Interaction with metals:
- dilute acid dissolves only those metals that are to the left of hydrogen in a series of stresses, for example, H2+1SO4+ Zn0�= H2O + Zn+2SO4;
- The oxidizing properties of sulfuric acid are great. When interacting with various metals (except Pt, Au), it can be reduced to H2S-2S+4O2�or s0, eg:
- 2H2+6SO4�+ 2Ag0�= S+4O2�+ Ag2+1SO4�+ 2H2O;
- 5H2+6SO4�+ 8Na0�= H2S-2�+ 4Na2+1SO4�+ 4H2O;
- Concentrated acid H2S+6O4it also reacts (with heating) with some non-metals, turning into sulfur compounds with a lower oxidation state, for example:
- 2H2S+6O4�+ C0�= 2S+4O2�+ C+4O2�+ 2H2O;
- 2H2S+6O4�+ S0�= 3S+4O2+ 2H2O;
- 5H2S+6O4�+ 2P0�= 2H3P+5O4+ 5S+4O2�+ 2H2O;
- With basic oxides:
- H2SO4�+ CuO = CuSO4�+ H2O;
- With hydroxides:
- Cu (OH)2�+ H2SO4�= CuSO4�+ 2H2O;
- 2NaOH + H2SO4�= Na2SO4�+ 2H2O;
- Interaction with salts in exchange reactions:
- H2SO4�+ BaCl2�= 2HCl + BaSO4;
BaSO education4�(white precipitate, insoluble in acids) is used to determine this acid and soluble sulfates.
Monohydrate is an ionizing solvent of acidic nature.It is very good to dissolve the sulphates of many metals, for example:
- 2H2SO4�+ HNO3�= NO2+�+ H3O+�+ 2HSO4-;
- HClO4�+ H2SO4�= ClO4-�+ H3SO4+.
Concentrated acid is a fairly strong oxidizing agent, especially when heated, for example 2H2SO4�+ Cu = SO2�+ CuSO4�+ H2O.
Acting as an oxidizing agent, sulfuric acid is usually reduced to SO2. But it can be restored to S and even to H2S, for example H2S + H2SO4�= SO2�+ 2H2O + S.
Monohydrate almost can not conduct electrical current. Conversely, aqueous solutions of acid are good conductors. Sulfuric acid absorbs moisture, so it is used to dry various gases. As a desiccant, sulfuric acid acts until the pressure of water vapor above its solution is less than its pressure in the gas, which is dried.
If you boil a dilute solution of sulfuric acid, then water will be removed from it, and the boiling point will rise to 337 � C, for example, when sulfuric acid is being distilled at a concentration of 98.3%. Conversely, excess sulfuric anhydride evaporates from solutions that are more concentrated. Steam boiling acid at 337 � C partially decomposed into SO3�and H2O, which, when cooled, will be connected again.The high boiling point of this acid is suitable for use in the isolation of volatile acids from their salts when heated.
When handling sulfuric acid, you must be extremely careful. When this acid gets on the skin, the skin becomes white, then brownish and redness appears. The surrounding tissues swell. When this acid gets on any part of the body, it must be quickly washed off with water, and the burned place should be smeared with soda solution.
Now you know that sulfuric acid, whose properties are well studied, is simply indispensable for diverse production and mining of minerals.
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