How do trees grow?
A tree is a large perennial plant consisting of three main parts - the roots, which hold the tree in the soil in an upright position and suck water and necessary minerals from it; the trunk through which these substances are transported upwards; and crowns of leaves, in which the process of photosynthesis.
All trees, depending on the appearance of their leaves can be divided into two large groups.
- Conifers have very narrow and tough evergreen leaves, shaped like needles. They multiply by seeds, which until full maturation are inside tightly closed buds.
- Deciduous trees have wide and thin leaf plates, such as, for example, well-known to us oaks, maples and lindens.
In addition to this classification, trees are further subdivided, depending on the landscaping of their crowns, into evergreen and deciduous.
- Evergreen trees do not have a pronounced change of leaf cover, their crown is covered with leaves the whole year, some of them die and fall off, while others are only just blooming.
- Deciduous trees have distinct leaf development phases.All the leaves at the same time bloom in spring, live and develop all summer, grow old in the fall, lose their green color and fall. In winter, the tree is in a dormant period and stands without leaves.
Where do trees grow
Trees grow not only on a significant part of the land, but also in shallow waters of saline and fresh water bodies. Most trees need normal daily temperature not lower than 15 * С for normal development during the period of active growth, therefore there are no trees in the polar zones. In the steppes and deserts, trees do not grow for another reason - there is not enough moisture for them. There are practically no trees in the circumpolar tundra and only occasionally in these places you can see single dwarf birches and pines.
Boreal evergreen cold-tolerant coniferous forests are the most common forests of the Northern Hemisphere. With a wide ribbon they girdle the entire upper part of the globe. On the territory of Russia they are called "taiga". In zones with a temperate climate, forests consist of coniferous and deciduous deciduous trees. In the south, where the climate is milder, there are some evergreen species. This paradise for trees is a humid tropical and equatorial zone, where numerous species of evergreen broadleaf trees grow in abundance.
How many trees grow
Trees are the most long-lived and largest of all modern organisms inhabiting our planet. Botanical scientists suggest that Californian sequoiadendrons are quite capable of living for about five thousand years, while the actual documented record-breaking age of such a sequoia today is three thousand two hundred years. In Africa, giant baobabs are growing, which are slightly less than four thousand years old, Indian banyan trees can live to three thousand, while the official record holder of a long-lived pine is a durable tree growing in the mountains of eastern California, its age is four thousand six hundred years old!
Why do trees grow
Like all living things around, trees are born, grow, produce offspring, grow old and die. How does a huge, with a trunk in three grasping, oak grow from a small acorn, which can easily be placed on a child’s palm? How do trees grow, how does this miraculous transformation of a tiny seed into a mighty green giant occur? From the ground, through the roots, the tree receives minerals and water, carbon dioxide enters the leaves from the air through the pores, where, under the influence of sunlight, starch, sugar and other organic substances are produced.
The tree grows up and in breadth, as if constantly building up at the end points. If you nail a nail into the trunk of a young tree at a distance of one meter from the ground, then after twenty years it will remain at the same height, despite the fact that the tree itself has grown up ten meters upwards, or even more.
Between the wood and the bark, the tree has a special thin layer of cells called the cambium. It is in it that all new and new cells continuously form, which provide the tree with its growth. The cells that are created from the inside of the cambium, eventually turn into wood, and those that are created from the outside - into the bark. Thus, the diameter of the tree is constantly increasing, and its bark from time to time bursts, falls off and refreshes. On the tips of all branches, there are also dividing cells. Thanks to them, the branches are extended, thereby increasing the height of the tree. Every year on the branches all the new shoots are formed, and the growth of the tree continues again.
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