Earthquakes: causes, consequences
One of the terrible and unpredictable natural phenomena occurring on the planet Earth is an earthquake. The destructive power of this earthly catastrophe can reach enormous proportions and it is beyond the power of mankind to fight it. Due to the fact that earthquakes or tremors occur as a result of sudden and transient changes in the very bowels of the planet, it is almost impossible to prevent their occurrence at the present time. And sometimes it is also quite difficult to predict where, when and with what force tremors will occur. Therefore, in order to try to save yourself and the lives of your loved ones during this natural disaster, it is very important to know what to do during an earthquake and be able to provide first aid.
On planet Earth every year there is a huge number of earthquakes. But due to the fact that most of them have a very small impact force or occur at the very bottom of the oceans,Many of the aftershocks do not affect us at all and we are completely unaware of their occurrences, and some are not even aware of their existence. Noticeable damage can only be caused by strong earthquakes, or a tsunami arising in the ocean because of their cause.
Due to the fact that during earthquakes its energy is produced in many different forms (magnetic, electrical, mechanical), it is impossible to measure the strength of its action with absolute accuracy. The largest part of the destructive power of this natural phenomenon falls on the epicenter of its occurrence, and the rest of the energy turns into waves, the force of which decreases with increasing distance.
The strength of the earthquake is usually determined by means of such concepts as intensity, magnitude and energy class. The measurement of the amplitude of an earthquake, that is, the magnitude of the oscillations occurring directly in the epicenter of the catastrophe, is considered the most accurate, and the notion of intensity or intensity, measured in points, is more frequent in use in everyday life, since it allows us to characterize the force of earthquake manifestation on the crustal surface.The stronger the earthquake and the closer its epicenter, the greater the intensity. Consider the impact of this natural disaster, depending on the number of points of its intensity:
- From 1 to 2 points- insignificant force jerks, which can be determined only with the help of special devices. Earthquakes of 2 balls can also sometimes be determined by a person if at this moment he is in a stationary state.
- From 3 to 4 points- shocks are felt more strongly in high-rise buildings, swaying of a chandelier, slight mixing of objects and a feeling of light vertigo are possible.
- From 5 to 7 points- shocks start to be felt strongly enough on the ground, insignificant destructions of buildings are possible, for example, cracks appear on walls, windows break, crumbles plaster.
- 8 points- An earthquake causes the occurrence of deep cracks in houses, land and even slopes.
- 9 points- shocks become such a force that they are able to destroy the walls of houses and even some underground communication structures.
- From 10 to 11 balls- the earthquake of such a force causes a strong destruction of many buildings, bridges, landslides, landslides.
- 12 points- the force of destruction of such a force of pushes can significantly change the surface of the earth's crust, practically crush buildings and even change the movement of water in rivers.
The strength of an earthquake largely depends on how close to the earth's surface internal changes and movements of the earth's crust have occurred. The closer the hearth, the greater the destructive force becomes a natural disaster.
Causes of earthquakes
Quite often, many people have a question: “Why do earthquakes occur?”. In ancient times, people believed that such disasters are sent to them from above as a punishment for bad deeds. Currently, despite the fact that this question has not yet been fully studied, scientists have some answers. In fact, there are many reasons for the occurrence of such catastrophes and they are all divided into the following impacts:
- Natural.Natural impacts include internal changes of the planet Earth, the influence of cosmic storms, the sun, as well as some other phenomena of the Cosmos.
- Artificial.The man-made impact on the earthquake causes is man and its impact on the environment. Such actions may be explosions, excavation of terrestrial rocks for mining, and the like.
Depending on the cause of occurrence, the following types of earthquakes differ:
- Tectonic earthquakes.This species is the most common phenomenon that arises due to motions, faults and collisions of tectonic plates. Such earthquakes manifest themselves in different ways. This can be the emergence of huge cracks on the surface of the earth, various landslides and landslides, or with a small force of the earthquake can not at all reveal itself.
- EarthquakesThese earthquakes occur due to the impact on the earth's crust landslides and landslides. Such phenomena most often occur due to the occurrence of voids under the ground and inside the mountains. Most often landslide earthquakes do not have much power.
- Volcanic earthquakescaused by a volcanic eruption. Their feature is that they do not cause any significant damage and can be repeated a number of times.
- Artificial earthquakes.This species results from a large number of simultaneous explosions, nuclear explosions, as well as underground tests of various types of weapons.
- Man-made earthquakesarise when a person directly affects the environment. It may arise as a result of artificially changing the landscape when building dams or new structures, searching for oil accumulations, mining various types of minerals, and the destruction of mountains and plains by man.
Based on the results of numerous observations before the occurrence of many earthquakes, the following natural phenomena occur:
Ecological consequences of earthquakes
Depending on the strength of the earthquake, the proximity of the epicenter, as well as the place of its occurrence, various degrees of consequences of this phenomenon are manifested.
Consequences of earthquakes
Disasters with a higher intensity largely affect the ecology of the environment.
- The most frequent environmental consequences of earthquakes are the occurrence of such natural processes as debris, landslides, mudflows, crustal destructions and even floods. In any case, even a slight change in the habitual landscape, in any case, there is great stress for living organisms living in this area. For example, large landslide debris spoil the composition of the soil, flooding caused by an earthquake tsunami can permanently kill the life of organisms in the area.
- In the case of deep faults from the bowels of the earth, various heavy metals begin to flow into the atmosphere, negatively affecting living organisms.
- One of the most dangerous effects of the earthquake is the provocation of man-made disasters. In the event that it arose on the ground, where there were various structures created for the creation of production technologies, such as oil refineries or pharmaceutical enterprises. Due to violations of such buildings, there is almost always severe environmental pollution.
- In the event that an earthquake occurred in an area where waste was stored, all toxic and unsafe substances can travel a great distance around the area, which is also detrimental to a good ecological state.
- The destruction of oil and gas pipes, which cause a large accumulation of harmful substances into the air, is also very dangerous.
- The destruction of such energy objects as, for example, thermal power plants and state district power stations as a result of earthquakes can cause fires of enormous destructive proportions that can destroy the area for many kilometers around.The most terrible consequences of earthquakes occur when a nuclear power plant is destroyed.
Where earthquakes occur frequently
Where earthquakes occur frequently
The territory of occurrence of earthquakes does not have a uniform distribution. The main point or seismic belt, where earthquakes often occur, is in the Pacific Ocean. This belt captures Indonesia, the western part of the coast of Central and South America, Japan, Iceland, Kamchatka, Hawaii, the Philippines, the Kuriles and Alaska.
On the second place on seismic activity are areas of the Eurasian belt. It includes such mountain ranges as the Pyrenees, the Caucasus, Tibet, the Apennines, the Himalayas, the Altai, the Pamirs and the Balkans.
A large number of earthquakes occur in places of faults and where there is the greatest probability of plate collisions, as well as in places where volcanoes are in an active state.
Over the past ten years, the most devastating and powerful in terms of impact have been disasters in the following countries:
- India - more than 20 thousand victims.
- Iran - demolished a whole city and killed about 30 thousand people.
- ABOUT.Sumatra - more than 200 thousand people became victims.
- Pakistan - more than 70 thousand dead.
- China - killed more than 80 thousand
- Haiti - the victims were more than 200 thousand people.
- Japan - earthquakes caused the death of about 30 thousand people and caused the destruction of nuclear power plants, which led to harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
Where earthquakes occur in Russia
Russia also has a fairly large number of places where earthquakes occur periodically. The main seismically active points here are such mountainous areas as Kamchatka, Eastern Siberia, the Caucasus, and Altai. Also, quite often, similar catastrophes of a fairly large scale were observed on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands, where, due to earthquakes, tsunamis are also often formed.
The earthquake that occurred on Sakhalin Island in 1995 was the most devastating and scary in terms of the scale of victims and destructions in recent years in Russia. The intensity of this disaster amounted to almost 8 balls, which contributed to the destruction of most of the city of Neftegorsk, in which it occurred and the death of more than two thousand people.
Earthquake behavior rules
It is very important for each person to know the rules of behavior in case of an earthquake in order not to get lost at the most crucial moment and try to give the greatest possible help to yourself and others. First of all, this concerns those people who permanently reside or are temporarily in seismically dangerous zones, which should always be ready.
Earthquake behavior rules
In order for an earthquake not to be taken aback by all important documents and savings, a first aid kit and a flashlight must be kept in one place, always keep in mind a rough plan of action when you are in any of the possible places where you could be. Also you should not keep heavy, sharp and nucleated substances on the upper shelves and cabinets.
In the event that there is a message about a strong earthquake and the need to evacuate if you are not in the house and you have a small amount of time, you should immediately go to your house, collect all the necessary documents and things, turn off the water, electricity and gas close the doors. After that, it is necessary to leave the settlement as soon as possible and head to a safer place.
During an earthquake, it is very important to control oneself, suppress panic and confusion in oneself and try to act rationally, as quickly and efficiently as possible, in order to have a greater chance of escape from damage. First of all, if you are indoors, you should try to get out of the room as soon as possible, capturing and, if possible, go to a more open area where there is no electricity, buildings and trees nearby. If you go out from higher floors, it is better to do it by a ladder, rather than using an elevator.
In the event that the premises fail to leave, then it is necessary to find the safest place in it. This may be a place near the bearing wall, and which is not overloaded with objects, a doorway or under a strong table or bed that will be able to shelter from falling objects. In no case can not stand near windows, shelves and heavy objects, and you should not use gas and electricity.
If your children are near you, first of all you should try to calm them down, find a secluded place for them, or if you are in an open area, do not lose sight of them in any way and keep them close to you.
If an earthquake caught you in the car, you also need to try to find a more open area, not cluttered with posts, various plantations and shields intended for advertising, stop the car, open the door and stay in it until the jolts run out.
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